samatha meditation technique

In this guide, I will share the Samatha meditation technique, script, steps and benefits.

Samatha meditation technique is one of the most important of all Buddhist practices. It stills the mind so we can focus and be less affected by mental phenomena.

In this guide, I will teach you everything you need to know about Buddhist Samatha meditation.


How To Do Samatha Meditation And The Benefits You'll Get

What Is Samatha meditation technique?

Samatha is one of the core disciplines of Buddhist meditation. The other is Vipassana [tutorial].

I’ve researched both these techniques in depth over the past decade, and have spoken with meditation teachers and authors to create the ultimate guides for you.

Samatha is all about calmness. The word itself can be translated from Pali to mean “Peaceful Abiding”.

Lion’s Roar says:

“Peacefully abiding describes the mind as it naturally is. [The mind is] by nature joyous, calm and clear. In shamatha meditation…we’re letting our mind be as it is to begin with.” [1]

In other words, Samatha is about returning the mind to its natural, joyful state.

Samatha is expressed through the Tibetan term “Shyine”, which mean “peace and purification”.

Bottom line?

Samatha meditation is a way to calm the mind and produce inner peace.


Take a look at the dharma wheel below, and you’ll see how Samatha meditation technique is part of a process.

samatha meditation dharma wheel

This image shows the Dharma wheel and the Buddhist path to Nibbana (Nirvana).

This is an essential process leading to enlightenment.

Simply put: it’s a process.

We cannot get to Dhyana, Vipassana, or Panna without Samatha.

We need to practice Samatha meditation technique to develop calmness, because calmness leads to focus, which leads to insight and wisdom.

Calmness (Samatha) comes first.

Why Is Samatha (calmness) So Important? 

Samatha meditation technique is one of the best meditations for focus and concentration.

It achieves this by producing inner calm.

Every human being on Earth can immediately grasp the truth of what the Buddha taught.

Without calmness, we are hugely ineffective.

But there’s a more critical side to Samatha: clarity of perception.

The mind is unruly. We often act in thoughtless ways, or get caught up in emotions, or simply see things from the wrong point of view.

We know what it is to see things from the wrong point of view, like when we get in an argument or we take offence to something, or we become irrationally emotional.

When we see things from the wrong point of view, we’re really being led astray by the mind. The mind is kicking up thoughts, emotions and imaginings that we aren’t asking for and that are unhelpful.

The unenlightened then act on those mental illusions.

When I went through depression many years ago, I thought I was seriously ill even though I had nothing wrong with me. My mind was playing tricks on me. I kept seeing myself ill and thinking the worst.

I went through hell. And it was a hell entirely created by my mind.

What did I learn?

I learned not to be a slave to my thoughts or my mind.

So how do you stop being a slave to your thoughts?

How do you take control of the mind?

Mental control is vital. And we all need to know how to control emotions.

When we find inner calm, we stop the tide of emotions, and we see more clearly.

Samatha does these things. But it also goes further.

For total mental control the trick is to:

  1. Silence your thoughts
  2. See reality clearly
  3. Stop mental phenomena
  4. Understand those mental phenomena so that when they do occur, we have control over them.

Imagine how much easier life would be if we had a, b, and c. That’s what Samatha meditation technique is for.

Samatha meditation technique is about calming the mind so that we can see reality clearly.

Meaning of “Samatha” 

Samatha is a way of training the mind to be still so that we can concentrate.

In the Samatha meditation script, we focus on one object and meditate on it. This gradually builds our focus and stills the mind.

It’s hard in the beginning.

The first time I started doing Samatha meditation, I could only focus for a couple of minutes. We have to build that mind-muscle just like we build our other muscles at the gym.

As you practice, you will go through the stages of focus, from fish to monkey-mind to monk.

What stage of focus are you at? Fish? Monkey-mind? Regular person? Monk?

Most people are not used to focusing entirely on one thing. But through regular practice, the mind grows stronger.

As the mind grows stronger, three things happen:

  1. You experience less mental phenomena
  2. You have greater concentration
  3. Your mind is more still and peaceful (remember our discussion about “Peaceful Abiding”? Your mind will be starting to abide peacefully.

Then the essential thing:

Eventually, your focus becomes so strong than when you concentrate on an object you feel as though you are one with it; you are not aware of the difference between the meditation object and yourself because your mind is so keenly focused. This is what Buddhists call Jhana, “fixed mind”.


The Buddha taught that there are five stages of Jhana through which the meditator progresses.  

The Jhana are meditative states of stillness used in Buddhism. They are Vitakka, Vicara, Piti, Sukha and Ekaggata.

Exciting bit:

At the highest state of Jhana, when the mind is wholly fixed on external reality, we are freed from desire, lust, hatred and other mental impurities. The result is complete happiness and serenity. We achieve enlightenment.

Gets deeper too:

In ancient times there were some practitioners who used Samatha meditation technique as a means to gain supernormal powers like clairaudience.

They believed that when the mind absolutely attuned to an object, it can receive messages from that object. For instance, when focusing absolutely on another person, the meditator would hear their thoughts.

Sounds dangerous.

At the highest level of Jhana the mediator is left two choices: use their power for their own good or for the good of others. Only by using their power for the good of others can the meditator truly defeat Dukkha, suffering, from their mind.

Ultimately, Samatha meditation is about removing Dukkha

Suffering is called Dukkha.

Eliminating Dukkha is the ultimate aim of Samatha meditation technique.

Through continual Samatha practise, we learn to accept and to perceive the reality of physical, mental and spiritual pain.

This sense of acceptance then allows us to overcome the pain.

“Dukkha” and “Suffering” are Buddhist vernacular. Today we are more likely to say that meditation allows us to overcome negative thinking, depression, anxiety, stress, and all other mental pain, as well as to help to alleviate the symptoms of wounds and illnesses.

Samatha is about eliminating Dukkha.

Dukkha is Buddhist suffering, pain and dissatisfaction.

Samatha should always be relaxed

 The very word “Samatha” literally means “calm”.

So guess what.

You should practice Samatha calmly.

Most of us unfamiliar with focusing our minds so absolutely on one thing. If you ask your mind for too much too soon, you could cause harm.

Demanding yourself to focus on one object for an hour is like demanding your legs to run a marathon the first time you put your running shoes on. Injury will occur. That’s why it’s imperative to train your mind gradually.

I’ve personally made the mistake of trying to focus too hard too soon before, and I know from first-hand experience that you’re only setting yourself up for migraine.

Follow the Samatha meditation script slowly


Yeah, I know, it’s a lot more fun to dive in at the deep-end.

Smart strategy is this:

Try to focus on your object for around five minutes the first time. Then after a week, you can try ten minutes and so on. But don’t start by demanding yourself to focus for such a long period that you strain your brain. Be wise. Your mind is your best friend and most important ally. Treat it as such.

 How To Do Samatha Meditation Technique (Script & Steps)

We’re now ready to do Shamatha meditation technique script.

Follow this 9-step script. And always remember to practice calmly.

  1. Choose a length of time to meditate for. 20 minutes is a good bet.
  2. Choose to sit somewhere peaceful and relaxing.
  3. Sit comfortably in a meditation chair. Make sure you have good posture. Keep your feet flat on the floor.
  4. Rest your hands on your thighs with your fingers reaching out to your knees. Keep your arms and shoulders relaxed.
  5. Take a few minutes to relax.
  6. You may keep your eyes open if you like. If so, rest your gaze in front of you.
  7. Bring your attention to your breath. Do not force your attention. Instead, rest in gently on the breath.
  8. Thoughts and ideas will stir in your mind. Peacefully observe them. Then rest your attention back on your breath.
  9. Always remember that the key is to observe the meditation object calmly. This is different to other meditations like Bhakti  [tutorial].

Traditional Shamatha meditation objects.

Traditionally, Buddhists would practice Shamatha with different meditation objects.

Many of these you will most definitely not want to actually meditate on (you’ll see what I mean!).

This list is simply for educational purposes to show how to do Samatha meditation technique as was originally taught all those years ago.

 Ten Kasinas:

The kasina are physical objects that you can directly meditate on. These are:











Ten kinds of Foulness:

These are ten meditations that involve meditating on decomposing corpses.

Yes, really.

In the time of the Buddha, it was common for corpses to be disposed of in carnal-grounds, which meant it was relatively easy to find a corpse and meditate on it.  Today in Thailand, teachers advocate meditating on visions of your own body in these various states. Only advanced meditators should attempt this as it can be quite disturbing.

The bloated,

The livid,

The festering,

The cut-up,

The gnawed,

The scattered,

The hacked,

and scattered,

The bleeding,

The worm-infested


Ten kinds of Recollection (Anussati):

Anussati means “recollection,” “contemplation,” “remembrance,” “meditation” and “mindfulness.” These meditations involve devotional practices, like recollecting the sublime qualities of the Buddha, and meditative attainment, such as the ability to recollect past lives.

Recollection of the Buddha ( the Enlightened One),

Recollection of the Dhamma (the Law),

Recollection of the Sangha (the Community),

Recollection of Virtue,

Recollection of Generosity,

Recollection of Deities,

Recollection of Death,

Mindfulness occupied with the body,

Mindfulness of Breathing,

Recollection of Peace.

Four Divine Abidings:

Loving Kindness,




Four Immaterial States:

The base consisting of boundless space,

The base consisting of boundless consciousness,

The base consisting of nothingness

The base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception.

The One Perception : the Perception of Repulsiveness in Nutriment.

The One Defining : the defining of the Four Elements. 


Naturally, not all of the 40 objects of meditation are objects you would like to meditate on. Decomposing corpses? No thank you. Let’s contemporize and get real.

Modern Shamatha Meditation Technique

Mainly Samatha meditation technique involves focusing on a positive object that elicits a positive response.

If you want a speedy answer to how to do Samatha meditation technique, it’s this: focus on an object that creates positive mental states.

For instance:

Focus on an object with a clear positive trait and you will a) develop your concentration, and b) mentally absorb the positive quality of that object. That is the basis of Samatha meditation.

You can choose to focus on any positive object you like. Some of my personal favourite objects to meditate on are: stars, the sky, candles, water, my cats, my breath, my body, positive mental qualities (like love and kindness) and nature.


Feel free to choose your positive objects.

I highly recommend that among your meditations you include meditations on your body, your breath, physical movement, a calming sound, and positive mental images. The body and the breath are particularly important as they anchor your mind and enhance your mind-body connection.

The Benefits Of Samatha Meditation

Good news.

There is a reason why Buddhists consider this technique so important.

There are lots of benefits of Samatha meditation.

Like these benefits:

These are the most essential health benefits of Samatha meditation as proven by science.


Samatha meditation is a vital meditation technique. And I don’t just mean for Buddhists. For everyone.

With a calm mind, we can enjoy the moments of our lives.

Samatha also provides mental stillness. And with stillness we can focus, meaning we will be more productive.

But the best thing is inner peace, that sense of “Peaceful abiding”.

Samatha is a gentle way of restoring inner peace to the mind. That makes it a must-use technique not just for Buddhists, for everyone.

How did you get on with Samatha? I’d love to hear from you.

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About Paul Harrison

Paul Harrison is a qualified meditation teacher and writer with more than 15 years experience in meditation and mindfulness. He studied meditation in Oxford, UK, and Hamilton Ontario Canada, and earned his degree at Staffordshire University. Paul has helped thousands of people to discover their true potential through mindfulness, yoga and meditation.

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2 Responses

  1. wow……I deffinately want what Samantha meditation has to offer. Oh dear now im I shall practise Samantha without predjudice or expectation……but with infinite patience.Thank you

  2. Thank you for sharing! I am very happy to read that you recommend samatha as a foundation for vipassana! This is very much what my own teacher always recommends. Morality is a foundation for concentration and concentration is a foundation for wisdom. If you have samadhi then vipassana is easy. It is often forgotten or ignored nowadays… People seem to want quick results and forget that the dhamma can not be rushed. You just need to keep trying with lot of patience and metta (loving-kindness).

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